Tag Archives: Biology

Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria

Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria

 

Great review article about plant growth promoting bacteria. The link, citation, and author are below. The author believes, as I do, that in the not to distant future, plant growth promoting bacteria, PGPB, will begin to replace chemicals used in agriculture, horticulture,

plant growth promoting bacteria

Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria

environmental cleanup strategies, and even in home gardening. This change will not be a one size fits all solution, and no doubt some new technologies and application strategies will need to be employed.

Some of the key points:

  • In healthy soils, there are 108 to 10bacteria per gram but in stressed soils this number greatly decreases to as low as 104 bacteria per gram.
  • A number of different bacterial species are currently used in agriculture; however plant growth promoting bacteria are only used on a small fraction of available crops.
  • Bacteria are used for:
    • Nitrogen fixation
    • Phosphate Solubilization
    • Sequestering Iron
    • Producing Phytohormones
    • Producing Gibberellins,  Cytokinins,  Indoleacetic Acid, and Etylene
  • Bacteria affect plants in indirect ways like through competitive exclusion, and modulating the effects of stress.

The conclusion of the article is that the use of bacteria in agriculture has come of age. Taking advantage of microbe-plant interactions will be the future of agriculture. Additional studies will be needed, however, the commercial use of plant growth promoting bacteria will be more prevalent in the coming years.

 

 

Scientifica
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 963401, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.6064/2012/963401
Review Article

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications

Bernard R. Glick

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2012/963401/

 

Custom Biologicals, Inc.  manufactures a number of microbial products with plant growth promoting bacteria (PBPG). These biofertilizers contain both beneficial soil bacteria and beneficial Trichoderma fungi. Distributor inquires, both domestic and international are always welcome. Private formulations and protected areas are available. Contact Custom at (561) 797-3008 or via email at Bill@Custombio.biz.

 

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Composting Palm Trees

Composting Palm Trees

 

Using Custom GP and Custom B5

 

composting palm trees

Composting Palm Trees

Palm trees are great to look at, but composting palm trees is a major headache here in South Florida. Palm trees are notoriously difficult to compost and many composting facilities separate palm tree wastes from other types of landscaping waste material such as grass clippings. Its not uncommon here in S. Florida for palm tree waste to simply be put in a pile and dealt with at a later date.

 

So then in normal times, palm tree wastes accumulate at the collecting facility at a slow but steady rate. When a hurricane comes, the problem of what to do with palm trees is increased 100 fold.

Now, Custom Biologicals has a solution to composting palm trees – use the beneficial bacteria and beneficial fungi in Custom GP and Custom B5. These products act as composting accelerators both speeding the composting process and providing a much more consistent end product.

These products help “jump start” the composting process, helping to raise the temperature of the compost pile quickly and efficiently.  The temperature increase is due to increased biological activity and must be closely monitored during the process. Custom Biologicals can provide both beneficial microorganisms and consulting to help make composting palm trees viable at your facility.

Over the next few weeks, we’ll be starting a large composting palm trees project here in South Florida. I’ll be posting pictures, data and timeframes from this project. So check pack on this web site often.

In the meantime, should you have the need to compost palm trees more efficiently, less expensively, and in a more timely manner, contact Custom Biologicals at (561) 797-3008 or via email at Bill@Custombio.biz.

Custom Biologicals manufactures a wide variety of biological products for use in environmental and agricultural applications. 

 

 

 

 

 

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Microbes can have reviving action on growing systems

Microbes Can Revive Soils

Microbes can improve soil health, soil quality, and the quality, yield, and growth of crops. Microorganisms are an important part of the food web and perhaps the most overlooked part of the food web.

 

Microbes can have reviving action on growing systems

From: Nature Farm

Using Microbes in our soils and agricultural systems have been subject to a variety of trials within New Zealand on everything from sheep and cattle farms to onion growing. They have been shown to have a reviving action on growing systems. They can improve soil quality, soil health, and the growth, yield and quality of crops. Many fertiliser companies are now offering microbes as part of their bio product range, ensuring that the soil is inoculated to perform at its absolute peak. It is imperative that we start to explore more sustainable options for our agriculture, pastoral and horticulture sectors as the demand for food around the world continues to grow. We believe microbes for an important part to ensuring the fertility of our soils for generations to come. What do these beneficial microbes do?

Agricultural production begins with photosynthesis – the conversion of solar energy into chemical form. It’s an amazing process, but not a particularly efficient one. Even rapid growing plants like corn and sugar cane only fix a maximum of six to seven percent of the sun’s energy. One way to increase the amount of energy fixed, is with photosynthetic bacteria and algae. These utilize wavelengths that green plants do not.

Photosynthetic or phototropic bacteria are independent self-supporting microbes. They use the energy of sunlight and soil heat to convert secretions from plant roots, organic matter and harmful gases into plant useful substances like amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars and other metabolites. These can all be absorbed directly into plants to promote plant growth and also increase other beneficial microorganisms. For example VAM fungi increase in the root zone in the presence of amino acids secreted by these bacteria. In turn the VAM fungi improve the plant’s absorption of soil phosphates. The VAM can live alongside Azotobacter and Rhizobium and increase the capacity of plants to fix Nitrogen.

Other important species are lactic acid bacteria and yeast. These produce lactic acid from the sugars and carbohydrates the photosynthetic bacteria and yeasts produce. This is a strong sterilizing compound and can suppress some disease inducing microorganisms and nematode populations. It also contributes to the fermentation and breakdown of the tough cellulose and lignin. Here’s our soil digestive processes getting a help along. Yeasts on the other hand have other uses. They produce hormones and enzymes that promote plant cell and root division. They use the amino acids and sugars secreted by the photosynthetic bacteria and plant roots and in turn give off substances which are good growing compounds for the Lactic acid bacteria. So all three species have a separate role to play, and help each other. They also have a symbiotic or mutually beneficial relationship with the roots of plants. So plants grow exceptionally well in soils dominated by these Microbes.

Bacteria and microbes live, reproduce and die, at enormous rates and in doing so release a constant stream of nutrients in plant available form. They collect nitrogen and other nutrients from the soil organic matter and mineral particles. They reproduce, so more microbes are collecting and converting nutrients. They die and release what they have collected in a form the plants can use. The plants grow better, assimilate more energy and provide more food for more microbes and so it goes on.

It’s a two way process. Living plants absorb energy from the sun, incorporate it with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, water and nutrients they require from the soil. Then they release oxygen back to the atmosphere and carbon to the soil as carbohydrates, glucose and other carbon forms for the microbes to feed on. The size of this microbial population is governed by the inputs from the plants, the primary producers.

We can see the grass and trees growing on top of the ground. But scientists tell us that fifty percent of a plant’s primary production disappears underground to establish the root network and feed the microorganisms. That is what happens in a healthy natural system. It is a mutually beneficial relationship that has evolved over eons and led to the formation of our most fertile and well-structured soils. Even the timing is perfect. In most natural systems, the greatest microbial turnover and release of nutrients, coincides with the plant’s growth and its seasonal needs.

Understanding this helps us see the danger of farming systems and landuse activities that starve the soil of carbon matter. No carbon means no food for the microbes. No food for the microbes means no turnover of nutrients. No nutrients means no plant growth which means no carbon inputs and so it goes on into a downward spiral with loss of fertility, loss of structure, erosion and so on and on. So our effective microorganisms are only going to remain effective if we manage our pastures with them in mind too. That means not overstocking or baring paddocks. It means allowing pastures to develop enough leaf to do their photosynthesis number effectively and fix some carbon for all the other little greeblies further along the food chain.

 

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Bacillus Subtilis Plant Growth Promoter

Bacillus Subtilis Plant Growth Promoter

 

Bacillus subtilis plant growth promoter is a phrase that we’ll discuss in this post.

Bacillus subtilis plant growth promoter

Bacillus subtilis

It is well known that number of beneficial soil microorganisms, like Bacillus subtilis, act as plant growth promoters, also called synergistic plant promotion.

B. subtilis produces plant hormones and solubilizes insoluble forms of phosphates. This makes the phosphate, a necessary chemical in plant growth, available to the plant.

Custom B5, a biofertilizer, contains five species of beneficial soil bacteria including B. subtilis. 

Bacillus subtilis produces Auxins

One of the ways that B.subtilis promotes plant growth is by the production (biosynthesis) of plant hormones such as auxins. Auxin was derived from the greek word auxein which means to grow.

Auxins were the first plant hormones discovered. Auxins have a number of effects on plants including:

  • Stimulates cell elongation
  • Delays fruit ripening
  • Auxin is required for fruit formation
  • Stimulates the xylem and phloem
  • Auxin promotes root initiation and formation.

By producing auxins, B. subtilis helps the plant grow and develop. Since both the plant and the soil microorganism benefit, this relationship is called synergistic or sometimes the term probiotic is used. Either way, the soil microorganisms perform an invaluable service to the plant.

Bacillus subtilis solubilizes insoluble phosphate

The second major reason for the phrase Bacillus subtilis plant growth promoter is the ability to solubilize phosphate. Insoluble phosphate is generally inaccessible to the plant. The root system simply cannot absorb it. B. subtilis, however, solubilizes the phosphate making it accessible to the plant.

Soil microorganisms, such as B. subtilis, are essential to plant health and plant growth. The synergistic relationship between the soil bacteria and the plant roots is a vital one for both parties.

Commercial Products containing B. Subtilis

Custom Biologicals manufactures three agricultural products that contain B. subtilis.

Custom Biologicals is expert in the use of beneficial soil bacteria such as B. subtilis, sometimes called B. Sub or B. Sub bacteria.

Custom manufactures a wide variety of biological products including soil amendments. Contact Custom Biologicals at (561) 797-3008 or via email at Bill@Custombio.biz. Distributor inquires are welcome. Private labeling and customized formulations are available.