Tag Archives: Microorganism

Probiotics and Rice

Probiotics and Rice

Field Trials

 

Probiotics and Rice field trial information. The soil probiotic used in the field trial is Biota Max™. Soil probiotics are sometimes called biofertilizers or biological soil amendments.

Biota Max

Biota Max™ is a soil probiotic containing beneficial soil microbes, both beneficial soil bacteria and beneficial soil fungi. Biota Max™ is a unique, effervescent tablet  that dissolves easily and quickly in water. Once dissolved, each Biota Max tablet will treat 1/4 acre (or 1/10 hectare) with billions of beneficial microorganisms.

Soil Probiotics and Plant Roots

These beneficial soil microorganisms help the plant grow larger, healthier root systems.These larger, healthier roots help grow bigger and more productive rice plants. Healthier roots help plants take in and process more nutrients and take up more water. A more efficient uptake of fertilizers and water means less waste and less runoff. Typically, using Biota Max™ also reduces  the amount of Nitrogen needed.

I’ve attached the soil probiotics and rice field trials below. A couple of interesting things to note.

  • The roots in the untreated versus treated with Biota Max™ – great pictures of bigger, healthier roots.
  • The yield increases in the treated versus untreated. In fact, the rice yield increased 11.3%, 16.6%, or 26.8% depending on the treatment method.
  • The overall health and look of the plants.

Custom Biologicals

Custom Biologicals  manufactures a number of probiotics, biofertilizers, and soil and seed inoculants for agriculture. Here’s a list of our biological fertilizers. Here…

We’re always looking for new distributors, both international and domestic. Private labeling and custom formulations are available. We specialize in producing high quality, highly concentrated biological products.

Additional case study are available. Also we have information on the overall effectiveness of biofertilizers and soil probiotics.

Custom can be reached at Bill@Custombio.biz or by phone at (561) 797-3008.

probiotics and rice

Biota Max and Rice Field Trial

probiotics and rice part 2

 

Benefits of Biofertilizers

Benefits of Bioferilizers

 

Benefits of Biofertilizers

There are many benefits of biofertilizers. Biofertilizers contain living microorganisms. In this post we’ll talk about three benefits of biofertilizers;

  1. helping make plant nutrients more available to the plants,
  2. the production of plant hormones,
  3. biofertilizers are cost effective when compared to traditional fertilizers
  4. Reduce the need for traditional fertilizers

Biofertilizers Make Nutrients Available to Plants

Biofertilizers contain living microbes, generally bacteria and/or fungi. These microorganisms Benefits of Biofertilizersadd nutrients to the soil by nitrogen fixation and by solubilizing both phosphorus and sulphur. Nitrogen fixation can be achieved by a variety of microorganism including, Azotobacter and Rhizobium. Paenibacillus polymyxa is a bacteria that fixes nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation is a key component of the nitrogen cycle.

Additionally, biofertilizers solubilize both phosphorus and sulphur. Phosphorous solubilization is performed by  Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus megaterium. Sulphur is solubilized by bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus.

Biofertilizers Produce Plant Hormones

Plant hormones, also called phtyohormones regulate plant growth. An increase in plant hormones generally has a positive effect on root size and root structure. Bigger, stronger roots make for a healthier plant. Both bacteria and fungi produce phtyhormones. Among the bacteria, Bacillus subtilis manufactures a number of plant hormones as does Bacillus licheniformus and Bacilllus megaterium. Several species of Trichoderma produce phytohormones including, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma polysporum.

Biofertilizers are Cost Effective

Generally speaking, biofertilizers will reduce the amount of traditional fertilizers needed by growers. As the price of fertilizers continues to skyrocket, controlling costs is a major issue for most growers. Since biofertilizers help make traditional fertilizers more effective, growers can reduce the amount of NPK used. One of the major benefits of biofertilizers is the reduced cost and the reduction in the use of other chemicals.

Overall, the use of biofertilizers worldwide continues to grow. As more and more growers realize the benefits of biofertilizers, the market for microorganisms in farming will continue to expand.

Custom Biological manufactures a number of biofertilizers, soil probiotics, and soil amendments for use in agriculture. Contact Custom via email at Bill@Custombio.biz or at (561) 797-3008 for additional information.

 

Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling

Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling

Nutrient recycling in soil is generally performed by microorganisms. Both beneficial soil fungi and beneficial soil bacteria are the main players. Soil microbes will exist in extremely large numbers in soils as long as a carbon source exists for energy. Interestingly, in undisturbed soils fungi tend to dominate the soil biomass, while in tilled soils bacteria, actinomycetes, and protozoa dominate the soils. This is due to the fact that the later are hardier species and can tolerate more soil disruptions.

Organic Matter Decomposition by Microorganisms

The decomposition of organic matter serves two distinct functions for microorganisms. This process provides both an energy source and supplies carbon for cell growth and reproduction. Absent  a reliable carbon source, there are less microorganisms and the organisms that are present tend to be in a dormant state. This is the condition found in

Nutrient Recycling

Dawn on the road in the forest in summer

tilled and highly used soils.

In contrast, long term no tilled soils have significantly higher levels of microbes, higher levels of soil decomposition, more active carbon, and more stored carbon. In other words, these soils have a greater degree of nutrient recycling and are healthier as a results.

The overall health of soil will be greatly effected by the amount of organic carbon in the soil. This organic carbon is needed to support an active, healthy microbial population.

Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio

The break down of organic compounds by microorganisms is greatly dependent on the carbon to nitrogen ratio  (C:N). Bacteria generally start the decomposition process first. They have high nitrogen content in their cells but are typically less efficient at converting the organic carbon to new cells. Aerobic bacteria only metabolize and assimilate 5-10% of the available carbon leaving behind many waste carbon compounds.

The fungi are much more efficient at converting soil carbon into new cells. They can assimilate 40-55 % of the existing carbon. In particular, fungi are invaluable in consuming both cellulose and lignin.

Protozoa and nematodes consume the nitrogen rich bacteria and help the nutrient recycling process. They release the nitrogen as ammonia. Ammonia and soil nitrates are converted back and forth in the soil.

Microorganism communities change rapidly and continuously in the soil as organic matter is added, consumed, and recycled.

In conclusion, microorganisms are critical to decomposing and nutrient recycling. To have healthy, productive soils both a thriving microorganism population and carbon source are necessary pieces of the puzzle.

Have questions about nutrient recycling? Custom Biologicals can help. We manufacture a number of biological products that help with nutrient recycling in farming and gardening. Contact Custom at (561) 797-3008 or via email at Bill@Custombio.biz.

 

Enhanced by Zemanta

Specific Plant Benefits Provided by Beneficial Soil Bacteria

 Beneficial Soil Bacteria

Beneficial soil bacteria cause a number of specific plant benefits. These benefits include; larger, healthier roots, nutrient processing, and secretion of plant growth regulating substances. This post will discuss each of these plant benefits in more detail.

Beneficial Soil Bacteria Help grow Larger, Healthier Roots

There are a number of bacteria that help promote plant growth and they are sometimes beneficial soil bacteriacalled Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGBR). PGBR are defined as rhizospere inhabiting bacteria that have a positive effect on plant growth and plant health. There are several genera that are considered PGPR including, Bacillus, Azospirillum, and Pseudomonas.

Beneficial soil bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium, produce a class of chemicals called cytokinins. These cytokinins impact roots by overproduction of root hairs and and lateral roots. This, in turn, provides the plant with an increased ability to take up water and nutrients. So, as expected, a larger healthier root system provides for a healthier plant.

Enhanced Nutrient Processing

Bacteria process a wide variety of chemicals. Often times taking in inorganic compounds and metabolizing them into organic compounds. The bacteria need phosphate for DNA and RNA synthesis and for production of ATP. The benefit to the plant of this processing is the conversion of the phosphate from an insoluble form to a soluble one. Since insoluble phosphate is inaccessible to the plant, this processing by bacteria is invaluable to the plant.

Bacteria Produce and Secrete plant Growth Regulating Compounds

Along with the cytokinins, mentioned earlier, bacteria produce a number of beneficial growth compounds  that convey a plant benefit. These include plant hormones (sometimes called phytohormones) and  auxins. Together phytohormones, cytokinins, and auxins regulate plant growth, root size, and fruit formation. Ultimately, its the beneficial bacteria that either produce these compounds or induce the plant to produce these compounds.

Custom Biologicals manufactures a wide variety of biological products for use in environmental applications. Our agricultural products include Custom B5, a blend of 5 beneficial soil bacteria that convey the specific plant benefits mentioned above. Contact Custom for more information. 

Living Organic Fertilizer

mighty grow sales sheet pngLiving Organic Fertilizer

OMRI Listed and Processed with Natural Trace Minerals and Beneficial Microorganisms

Living Organic Fertilizer is a innovative, OMRI listed, biologically active fertilizer manufactured by Mighty Grow. Made from poultry litter and processed with live beneficial microbes and trace minerals, this revolutionary product is an all purpose, premium fertilizer.

Living Organic fertilizer is a 4/3/4 product and is suitable for use in organic farming, gardening, and golf course greens.

Living Organic Fertilizer is:

  • Biologically Active
  • Naturally Time Released
  • 100% Organic, OMRI Listed
  • Safe and Natural
  • Non-Burning
  • Promoties both plant and soil health. Increases soil organic matter.
  • Replaces beneficial soil microorganisms and contains both beneficial soil fungi and beneficial soil bacteria.

An often overlooked component of soil health are beneficial soil microorganisms. In fact, beneficial bacteria and beneficial fungi are largely responsible for making a wide variety of nutrients available to the plant. Additionally, soil microorganisms are responsible for mineralization and immobilization of soil nutrients.

A common element of healthy soils, is a large, diverse population of soil microorganisms. So what happens in soils that don’t have this population of soil organisms? Simple, the crops underperform and require increasing amounts of traditional fertilizers. Not only are traditional fertilizers expensive, they are environmentally suspect.

The solution is Living Organic Fertilizer containing five species of beneficial soil bacteria and four species of beneficial soil bacteria.

Living Organic Fertilizer Contains Beneficial Soil Microorganisms.

  • Beneficial Soil Bacteria
    1. Bacillus subtilis
    2. Bacillus licheniformus
    3. Bacillus pumilus
    4. Bacillus megaterium
    5. Bacillus laterosporus
  • Beneficial Soil Fungi
    1. Trichoderma harzianum
    2. Trichoderma kongii
    3. Trichoderma viride
    4. Trichoderma polysporum

Contact me for more information about Living Organic fertilizer or biologically active fertilizers at (561) 797-3008 or Bill@custombio.biz.

MSDS-MightyGrow_4-3-4

Living Organic 4-3-4 Bulk Label

MG-SALES-SHEET-LivingOrganic-OMRI-PROOF

MSDS-MightyGrow_4-3-4

 

Enhanced by Zemanta

What do Soil Organisms Do?

Nutrient cycling in the dry savannas

What do Soil Organisms Do?

We’re all aware that our soils are teeming with life, from the microscopic (bacteria) to the macroscopic (earthworms). In this post, we’ll examine some of the common soil organisms and discuss what they do in the soil.

First, the players. Here’s a list of common soil organisms. Keep in mind that the soil ecosystem is extremely varied and small changes in common soil characteristics (pH, water, temperature, nutrient levels) can have a large impact on the species found in the soil.

  • Bacteria – both aerobic and anaerobic. As many as 100,000,000 bacteria per teaspoon of soil.
  • Fungi – singled celled and multi-celled. Several yards per teaspoon.
  • Protozoa – one celled animals. Several thousand protozoa per teaspoons of soil.
  • Nematodes – also called roundworms. 10-20 nematodes per teaspoon of soil is typical.
  • Arthropods – includes insects, spiders. Several hundred per cubic foot.
  • Earthworms – One inch or more long. healthy soils will have 5-30 earthworms per cubic foot.

As you can see, healthy soils contain a wide variety of soil organisms. From simple single celled organisms, to more complex organisms like insects and earthworms.

The Value of Soil Organisms

From a farming perspective, a diverse active population of soil organisms has four main benefits; nutrient cycling, enhancing soil structure, enhancing plant growth, and controlling plant disease. Each of these benefits could be a topic on their own. I’ll just summarize the benefits here.

Nutrient Cycling – Probably the most important from a farming perspective, soil organisms help store nutrients in the soil and create new organic nutrients. Soil organisms are continually transforming and recycling nutrients. The key tasks of decomposition, mineralization, immobilization, and mineral transformation are all performed by soil organisms.

Enhanced Soil Structure – Crumbly, well aerated soils tend to support the most crops. Soil organisms are the key component of soil structure.

Enhanced Plant Growth – Beneficial soil bacteria and beneficial soil fungi produce a wide variety of plant hormones. These  hormones stimulate plant roots.

Controlling Plant Disease – Soil organisms have a wide variety of ways to deal with plant predators. Some of the microscopic organisms complete with pathogens for food sources. Insects and protozoa tend to consume some of the harmful plant organisms, keeping their populations in check.

Each type of soil organism fits a unique niche, playing a different role in nutrient cycling, enhanced soil structure, and controlling plant diseases and plant predators.

 

 

Enhanced by Zemanta

Beneficial Soil Microbes

Beneficial Soil Microbes in the News

Beneficial soil microbes include everything from bacteria to fungi. These microscopic forms of life are getting a lot of attention in agriculture these days. This article sums up a feature article in this months Scientific American. The article looks at how soil microbes may revolutionize agriculture.

Two other recent scientific article are referenced. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences outlines how diversity in microbial populations is important to European agriculture. The second article in Nature determined that soil microbes are responsible for controlling carbon in the soil.

In general these articles talk about beneficial soil microorganisms and include both beneficial bacteria and beneficial soil fungi.

 

Dirty Microbes

As scientists understand more about microbes, it seems that the miniscule life forms have the potential to contribute to a host of useful activities—making biofuels, fighting human disease, improving high tech, you name it!

Now, a feature article in the September issue ofScientific American looks at how soil microbes could revolutionize agriculture.

Soil microbes include everything from bacteria to fungi, and article author Richard Conniff likes to call the lot collectively “the agribiome.” These microscopic life forms have the potential to solve many crises facing agriculture today—everything from climate change and drought to Salmonellaand other food-bourn illnesses, from the costs of man-made fertilizers to the GMO controversy.

Conniff’s article comes on the heels two other papers that highlight the importance of soil microbes. In a paper published last week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team of British scientists emphasizes how important soil microbe diversity is for European crops. And two weeks ago, American researchers determined that soil microbes are responsible for controlling carbon in the soil—an important factor in retaining the important mineral in the dirt as temperatures rise and the climate warms.

The Scientific American article gives many examples of these crucial, unseen microbial workers. Bacteria found in soil on the United States West Coast can kill Salmonella, Conniff reports, so the USDA is looking at introducing the bacteria in East Coast soils to stop the occasionally deadly outbreaks.

And instead of genetically modifying actual crops to withstand drought conditions, Mexican scientists are looking at modifying bacteria to strengthen the plants in the soil at their roots.

Mycorrhizal fungi in the soil are heroes in both the SciAm article and the PNAS study. The fungi deliver much-needed phosphate to crops, an easier and cheaper way to get the important mineral to the plants to help them grow. Artificial fertilizers can be expensive, especially for farmers in developing countries, and harm the natural soil ecosystem. Run-off from these fertilizers also contaminates freshwater and marine environments. A simple animation of how the fungi works to help plants is available here.

(Mycorrhizal fungi also play a heroic role in the next Academy planetarium show! Currently in production and set for a fall 2014 opening date, the latest production from our visualization studio will highlight the complex relationships in ecosystems—and how humans fit into the picture.)

If farmers and scientists can acknowledge that collaborating with microbes can play a crucial role in farming, “we will have come a step closer to feeding a hungry world,” Conniff concludes.

The lead author of the PNAS paper, Franciska de Vries, says, “This research highlights the importance of soil organisms and demonstrates that there is a whole world beneath our feet, inhabited by small creatures that we can’t even see most of the time. By liberating nitrogen for plant growth and locking up carbon in the soil they play an important role in supporting life on Earth.”

 By Molly Michelson

 

Enhanced by Zemanta

Microbes can have reviving action on growing systems

Microbes Can Revive Soils

Microbes can improve soil health, soil quality, and the quality, yield, and growth of crops. Microorganisms are an important part of the food web and perhaps the most overlooked part of the food web.

 

Microbes can have reviving action on growing systems

From: Nature Farm

Using Microbes in our soils and agricultural systems have been subject to a variety of trials within New Zealand on everything from sheep and cattle farms to onion growing. They have been shown to have a reviving action on growing systems. They can improve soil quality, soil health, and the growth, yield and quality of crops. Many fertiliser companies are now offering microbes as part of their bio product range, ensuring that the soil is inoculated to perform at its absolute peak. It is imperative that we start to explore more sustainable options for our agriculture, pastoral and horticulture sectors as the demand for food around the world continues to grow. We believe microbes for an important part to ensuring the fertility of our soils for generations to come. What do these beneficial microbes do?

Agricultural production begins with photosynthesis – the conversion of solar energy into chemical form. It’s an amazing process, but not a particularly efficient one. Even rapid growing plants like corn and sugar cane only fix a maximum of six to seven percent of the sun’s energy. One way to increase the amount of energy fixed, is with photosynthetic bacteria and algae. These utilize wavelengths that green plants do not.

Photosynthetic or phototropic bacteria are independent self-supporting microbes. They use the energy of sunlight and soil heat to convert secretions from plant roots, organic matter and harmful gases into plant useful substances like amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars and other metabolites. These can all be absorbed directly into plants to promote plant growth and also increase other beneficial microorganisms. For example VAM fungi increase in the root zone in the presence of amino acids secreted by these bacteria. In turn the VAM fungi improve the plant’s absorption of soil phosphates. The VAM can live alongside Azotobacter and Rhizobium and increase the capacity of plants to fix Nitrogen.

Other important species are lactic acid bacteria and yeast. These produce lactic acid from the sugars and carbohydrates the photosynthetic bacteria and yeasts produce. This is a strong sterilizing compound and can suppress some disease inducing microorganisms and nematode populations. It also contributes to the fermentation and breakdown of the tough cellulose and lignin. Here’s our soil digestive processes getting a help along. Yeasts on the other hand have other uses. They produce hormones and enzymes that promote plant cell and root division. They use the amino acids and sugars secreted by the photosynthetic bacteria and plant roots and in turn give off substances which are good growing compounds for the Lactic acid bacteria. So all three species have a separate role to play, and help each other. They also have a symbiotic or mutually beneficial relationship with the roots of plants. So plants grow exceptionally well in soils dominated by these Microbes.

Bacteria and microbes live, reproduce and die, at enormous rates and in doing so release a constant stream of nutrients in plant available form. They collect nitrogen and other nutrients from the soil organic matter and mineral particles. They reproduce, so more microbes are collecting and converting nutrients. They die and release what they have collected in a form the plants can use. The plants grow better, assimilate more energy and provide more food for more microbes and so it goes on.

It’s a two way process. Living plants absorb energy from the sun, incorporate it with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, water and nutrients they require from the soil. Then they release oxygen back to the atmosphere and carbon to the soil as carbohydrates, glucose and other carbon forms for the microbes to feed on. The size of this microbial population is governed by the inputs from the plants, the primary producers.

We can see the grass and trees growing on top of the ground. But scientists tell us that fifty percent of a plant’s primary production disappears underground to establish the root network and feed the microorganisms. That is what happens in a healthy natural system. It is a mutually beneficial relationship that has evolved over eons and led to the formation of our most fertile and well-structured soils. Even the timing is perfect. In most natural systems, the greatest microbial turnover and release of nutrients, coincides with the plant’s growth and its seasonal needs.

Understanding this helps us see the danger of farming systems and landuse activities that starve the soil of carbon matter. No carbon means no food for the microbes. No food for the microbes means no turnover of nutrients. No nutrients means no plant growth which means no carbon inputs and so it goes on into a downward spiral with loss of fertility, loss of structure, erosion and so on and on. So our effective microorganisms are only going to remain effective if we manage our pastures with them in mind too. That means not overstocking or baring paddocks. It means allowing pastures to develop enough leaf to do their photosynthesis number effectively and fix some carbon for all the other little greeblies further along the food chain.

 

Enhanced by Zemanta

The Role of Microorganisms in Soil

The Role of Microorganisms in Soil

 

Microorganisms in soil is discussed and there is a link at the bottom of the page to access the entire publication.

Soil formation is in large part due to the activity and metabolism of soil microorganisms. Microorganisms in soilPhysical and chemical processes also are important.

The paper discusses the key elements of soil formation and emphasizes the role microorganisms play in the process.

 

The Role of Microorganisms at Different Stages of ecosystem Development for Soil Formation. 

 

S. Schulz, R. Brankatschk, A. Dümig, I. Kögel-Knabner, M. Schloter, and J. Zeyer. The role of microorganisms at different stages of ecosystem development for soil formation. Biogeosciences, 10, 3983-3996, 2013. doi:10.5194/bg-10-3983-2013

 

Abstract

 

Soil formation is the result of a complex network of biological as well as chemical and physical processes. The role of soil microbes is of high interest, since they are responsible for most biological transformations and drive the development of stable and labile pools of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and other nutrients, which facilitate the subsequent establishment of plant communities. Forefields of receding glaciers provide unique chronosequences of different soil development stages and are ideal ecosystems to study the interaction of bacteria, fungi and archaea with their abiotic environment. In this review we give insights into the role of microbes for soil development. The results presented are based on studies performed within the Collaborative Research Program DFG SFB/TRR 38 (http://www.tu-cottbus.de/ecosystem ) and are supplemented by data from other studies. The review focusses on the microbiology of major steps of soil formation. Special attention is given to the development of nutrient cycles on the formation of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and on the establishment of plant–microbe interactions.

 

Download full paper

 

Biogeosciences (BG) is an international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and discussion of research articles, short communications and review papers on all aspects of the interactions between the biological, chemical and physical processes in terrestrial or extraterrestrial life with the geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. The objective of the journal is to cut across the boundaries of established sciences and achieve an interdisciplinary view of these interactions. Experimental, conceptual and modelling approaches are welcome. More at Biogeosciences homepage.

Microorganisms in soil is the topic of this post.

Enhanced by Zemanta

Crop rotation and the role of microorganisms

Crop rotation has been used effectively  for centuries; however, this is the first article that I have seen that discusses the changes in the microorganisms in the soil as a result of the rotation.

It’s probably not surprising that the organisms changed. What surprised me was that with the wheat the soil microorganisms were mostly bacteria. When crops the crops were changes to oats or peas, there was a shift to soil fungi.

I’d expect to see more studies about the role of microorganisms in the soil in the future. As we move towards using less fertilizer and towards sustainable agricultural practices the role of microorganisms may well be the key feature.

 

 

Crop rotation and the role of microorganisms

Crop rotation has been used since ancient times to improve plant nutrition and to limit the spread of disease. A new study reveals this relates to enriching the soil with bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons. The practice of crop rotation gives various benefits to the soil, such as the replenishment of nitrogen.

In essence, the new research has demonstrated that changing the crop species massively changes the content of microbes in the soil, which in turn helps the plant to acquire nutrients, regulate growth and protect itself against pests and diseases, boosting yield. The location where this happens is called the rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated soil microorganisms.

To show this an organic agricultural study was conducted. Soil was collected from a field near Norwich (in the U.K.) and planted with wheat, oats and peas. After growing wheat, the analysis of the soil showed that it remained largely unchanged and the microbes in it were mostly bacteria. However, growing oat and pea in the same soil caused a huge shift towards fungi.

To show this, extensive genetic testing was required because each gram of soil contains over 50,000 species of bacteria. The findings of the study could be used to develop plant varieties that encourage beneficial microbes in the soil.

The study was published in Nature’s The ISME Journal. The paper is titled “Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals kingdom level changes in the rhizosphere microbiome of plants.”

Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/355178#ixzz2aAkc91md

 

Enhanced by Zemanta
« Older Entries