Tag Archives: Plant

Microbe Plant Interactions

Microbe Plant Interactions

Microbe plant interactions are an ongoing, every changing encounter. This is a microscopic, symbiotic relationship unseen by the naked eye.

Here’s a great quote from Nature the international weekly journal of science.

 

Plant—microbe encounters can be friendly or hostile. Densely colonized soil contains beneficial mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia, which associate with roots and provide plants with mineral nutrients and fixed nitrogen, respectively, in exchange for carbon.

For this post, we’ll only talk about the friendly interactions between microbes and plants. We’ll also include bacteria and the microscopic fungi, Trichoderma, into the discussion.

Types of Microbe Plant InteractionsMicrobe Plant Interactions

There are too many types on microbe plant friendly interactions to completely discuss here, but we’ll talk about a few of the main ones.

  • Carbon root exudate by plants
  • Nitrogen fixation by bacteria
  • Phosphate solubilization by bacteria and fungi
  • Auxin and other growth hormone production by bacteria and fungi

Plant exudate, or excrete, carbon compounds into  the soil. These compounds serve to attract a variety of microorganisms. The microorganisms need the carbon for cellular components and to reproduce.

Nitrogen Fixation

Nitrogen is needed by plants for both protein synthesis and for DNA and RNA synthesis. Atmospheric nitrogen is very abundant. The problem is that atmospheric nitrogen is not available to plants. Many bacteria, including Paenibacillus, are capable of taking atmospheric Nitrogen and incorporating the Nitrogen into their cell. This process is called Nitrogen fixation. By use of this process, atmospheric nitrogen, otherwise unavailable to the plant, is now available. Nitrogen fixing bacteria are an integral part of the Nitrogen cycle.

Phosphate Solubilization

Phosphate  is required by plant cells for both DNA synthesis and energy transport. The important chemicals ATP and ADP both require phosphate. Both bacteria and Trichoderma solubilize phosphate and make it available to the plant. The phosphate cycle, while not as well know as the nitrogen or carbon cycles, is vital to the plants survival.

Auxin Production

Auxins are growth hormones that stimulate plant growth, particularly root growth. More auxins cause plants to have healthier, better developed root systems. Better root systems, of course, means a healthier, more productive plant. Several bacterial species and Trichoderma fungi produce auxins and a myriad of other plant growth hormones.

Microbe plant interactions are diverse and complex. It is safe to say, that without beneficial soil microbes, plants would have difficulty growing to their full potential.

Custom Biologicals manufactures a wide variety of beneficial soil microbial products. Contact Custom for more information about how to put these powerful products to work for you.

 

 

Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling

Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling

Nutrient recycling in soil is generally performed by microorganisms. Both beneficial soil fungi and beneficial soil bacteria are the main players. Soil microbes will exist in extremely large numbers in soils as long as a carbon source exists for energy. Interestingly, in undisturbed soils fungi tend to dominate the soil biomass, while in tilled soils bacteria, actinomycetes, and protozoa dominate the soils. This is due to the fact that the later are hardier species and can tolerate more soil disruptions.

Organic Matter Decomposition by Microorganisms

The decomposition of organic matter serves two distinct functions for microorganisms. This process provides both an energy source and supplies carbon for cell growth and reproduction. Absent  a reliable carbon source, there are less microorganisms and the organisms that are present tend to be in a dormant state. This is the condition found in

Nutrient Recycling

Dawn on the road in the forest in summer

tilled and highly used soils.

In contrast, long term no tilled soils have significantly higher levels of microbes, higher levels of soil decomposition, more active carbon, and more stored carbon. In other words, these soils have a greater degree of nutrient recycling and are healthier as a results.

The overall health of soil will be greatly effected by the amount of organic carbon in the soil. This organic carbon is needed to support an active, healthy microbial population.

Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio

The break down of organic compounds by microorganisms is greatly dependent on the carbon to nitrogen ratio  (C:N). Bacteria generally start the decomposition process first. They have high nitrogen content in their cells but are typically less efficient at converting the organic carbon to new cells. Aerobic bacteria only metabolize and assimilate 5-10% of the available carbon leaving behind many waste carbon compounds.

The fungi are much more efficient at converting soil carbon into new cells. They can assimilate 40-55 % of the existing carbon. In particular, fungi are invaluable in consuming both cellulose and lignin.

Protozoa and nematodes consume the nitrogen rich bacteria and help the nutrient recycling process. They release the nitrogen as ammonia. Ammonia and soil nitrates are converted back and forth in the soil.

Microorganism communities change rapidly and continuously in the soil as organic matter is added, consumed, and recycled.

In conclusion, microorganisms are critical to decomposing and nutrient recycling. To have healthy, productive soils both a thriving microorganism population and carbon source are necessary pieces of the puzzle.

Have questions about nutrient recycling? Custom Biologicals can help. We manufacture a number of biological products that help with nutrient recycling in farming and gardening. Contact Custom at (561) 797-3008 or via email at Bill@Custombio.biz.

 

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Living Organic Fertilizer

mighty grow sales sheet pngLiving Organic Fertilizer

OMRI Listed and Processed with Natural Trace Minerals and Beneficial Microorganisms

Living Organic Fertilizer is a innovative, OMRI listed, biologically active fertilizer manufactured by Mighty Grow. Made from poultry litter and processed with live beneficial microbes and trace minerals, this revolutionary product is an all purpose, premium fertilizer.

Living Organic fertilizer is a 4/3/4 product and is suitable for use in organic farming, gardening, and golf course greens.

Living Organic Fertilizer is:

  • Biologically Active
  • Naturally Time Released
  • 100% Organic, OMRI Listed
  • Safe and Natural
  • Non-Burning
  • Promoties both plant and soil health. Increases soil organic matter.
  • Replaces beneficial soil microorganisms and contains both beneficial soil fungi and beneficial soil bacteria.

An often overlooked component of soil health are beneficial soil microorganisms. In fact, beneficial bacteria and beneficial fungi are largely responsible for making a wide variety of nutrients available to the plant. Additionally, soil microorganisms are responsible for mineralization and immobilization of soil nutrients.

A common element of healthy soils, is a large, diverse population of soil microorganisms. So what happens in soils that don’t have this population of soil organisms? Simple, the crops underperform and require increasing amounts of traditional fertilizers. Not only are traditional fertilizers expensive, they are environmentally suspect.

The solution is Living Organic Fertilizer containing five species of beneficial soil bacteria and four species of beneficial soil bacteria.

Living Organic Fertilizer Contains Beneficial Soil Microorganisms.

  • Beneficial Soil Bacteria
    1. Bacillus subtilis
    2. Bacillus licheniformus
    3. Bacillus pumilus
    4. Bacillus megaterium
    5. Bacillus laterosporus
  • Beneficial Soil Fungi
    1. Trichoderma harzianum
    2. Trichoderma kongii
    3. Trichoderma viride
    4. Trichoderma polysporum

Contact me for more information about Living Organic fertilizer or biologically active fertilizers at (561) 797-3008 or Bill@custombio.biz.

MSDS-MightyGrow_4-3-4

Living Organic 4-3-4 Bulk Label

MG-SALES-SHEET-LivingOrganic-OMRI-PROOF

MSDS-MightyGrow_4-3-4

 

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Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria

Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria

 

Great review article about plant growth promoting bacteria. The link, citation, and author are below. The author believes, as I do, that in the not to distant future, plant growth promoting bacteria, PGPB, will begin to replace chemicals used in agriculture, horticulture,

plant growth promoting bacteria

Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria

environmental cleanup strategies, and even in home gardening. This change will not be a one size fits all solution, and no doubt some new technologies and application strategies will need to be employed.

Some of the key points:

  • In healthy soils, there are 108 to 10bacteria per gram but in stressed soils this number greatly decreases to as low as 104 bacteria per gram.
  • A number of different bacterial species are currently used in agriculture; however plant growth promoting bacteria are only used on a small fraction of available crops.
  • Bacteria are used for:
    • Nitrogen fixation
    • Phosphate Solubilization
    • Sequestering Iron
    • Producing Phytohormones
    • Producing Gibberellins,  Cytokinins,  Indoleacetic Acid, and Etylene
  • Bacteria affect plants in indirect ways like through competitive exclusion, and modulating the effects of stress.

The conclusion of the article is that the use of bacteria in agriculture has come of age. Taking advantage of microbe-plant interactions will be the future of agriculture. Additional studies will be needed, however, the commercial use of plant growth promoting bacteria will be more prevalent in the coming years.

 

 

Scientifica
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 963401, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.6064/2012/963401
Review Article

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications

Bernard R. Glick

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2012/963401/

 

Custom Biologicals, Inc.  manufactures a number of microbial products with plant growth promoting bacteria (PBPG). These biofertilizers contain both beneficial soil bacteria and beneficial Trichoderma fungi. Distributor inquires, both domestic and international are always welcome. Private formulations and protected areas are available. Contact Custom at (561) 797-3008 or via email at Bill@Custombio.biz.

 

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What do Soil Organisms Do?

Nutrient cycling in the dry savannas

What do Soil Organisms Do?

We’re all aware that our soils are teeming with life, from the microscopic (bacteria) to the macroscopic (earthworms). In this post, we’ll examine some of the common soil organisms and discuss what they do in the soil.

First, the players. Here’s a list of common soil organisms. Keep in mind that the soil ecosystem is extremely varied and small changes in common soil characteristics (pH, water, temperature, nutrient levels) can have a large impact on the species found in the soil.

  • Bacteria – both aerobic and anaerobic. As many as 100,000,000 bacteria per teaspoon of soil.
  • Fungi – singled celled and multi-celled. Several yards per teaspoon.
  • Protozoa – one celled animals. Several thousand protozoa per teaspoons of soil.
  • Nematodes – also called roundworms. 10-20 nematodes per teaspoon of soil is typical.
  • Arthropods – includes insects, spiders. Several hundred per cubic foot.
  • Earthworms – One inch or more long. healthy soils will have 5-30 earthworms per cubic foot.

As you can see, healthy soils contain a wide variety of soil organisms. From simple single celled organisms, to more complex organisms like insects and earthworms.

The Value of Soil Organisms

From a farming perspective, a diverse active population of soil organisms has four main benefits; nutrient cycling, enhancing soil structure, enhancing plant growth, and controlling plant disease. Each of these benefits could be a topic on their own. I’ll just summarize the benefits here.

Nutrient Cycling – Probably the most important from a farming perspective, soil organisms help store nutrients in the soil and create new organic nutrients. Soil organisms are continually transforming and recycling nutrients. The key tasks of decomposition, mineralization, immobilization, and mineral transformation are all performed by soil organisms.

Enhanced Soil Structure – Crumbly, well aerated soils tend to support the most crops. Soil organisms are the key component of soil structure.

Enhanced Plant Growth – Beneficial soil bacteria and beneficial soil fungi produce a wide variety of plant hormones. These  hormones stimulate plant roots.

Controlling Plant Disease – Soil organisms have a wide variety of ways to deal with plant predators. Some of the microscopic organisms complete with pathogens for food sources. Insects and protozoa tend to consume some of the harmful plant organisms, keeping their populations in check.

Each type of soil organism fits a unique niche, playing a different role in nutrient cycling, enhanced soil structure, and controlling plant diseases and plant predators.

 

 

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Microbes can have reviving action on growing systems

Microbes Can Revive Soils

Microbes can improve soil health, soil quality, and the quality, yield, and growth of crops. Microorganisms are an important part of the food web and perhaps the most overlooked part of the food web.

 

Microbes can have reviving action on growing systems

From: Nature Farm

Using Microbes in our soils and agricultural systems have been subject to a variety of trials within New Zealand on everything from sheep and cattle farms to onion growing. They have been shown to have a reviving action on growing systems. They can improve soil quality, soil health, and the growth, yield and quality of crops. Many fertiliser companies are now offering microbes as part of their bio product range, ensuring that the soil is inoculated to perform at its absolute peak. It is imperative that we start to explore more sustainable options for our agriculture, pastoral and horticulture sectors as the demand for food around the world continues to grow. We believe microbes for an important part to ensuring the fertility of our soils for generations to come. What do these beneficial microbes do?

Agricultural production begins with photosynthesis – the conversion of solar energy into chemical form. It’s an amazing process, but not a particularly efficient one. Even rapid growing plants like corn and sugar cane only fix a maximum of six to seven percent of the sun’s energy. One way to increase the amount of energy fixed, is with photosynthetic bacteria and algae. These utilize wavelengths that green plants do not.

Photosynthetic or phototropic bacteria are independent self-supporting microbes. They use the energy of sunlight and soil heat to convert secretions from plant roots, organic matter and harmful gases into plant useful substances like amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars and other metabolites. These can all be absorbed directly into plants to promote plant growth and also increase other beneficial microorganisms. For example VAM fungi increase in the root zone in the presence of amino acids secreted by these bacteria. In turn the VAM fungi improve the plant’s absorption of soil phosphates. The VAM can live alongside Azotobacter and Rhizobium and increase the capacity of plants to fix Nitrogen.

Other important species are lactic acid bacteria and yeast. These produce lactic acid from the sugars and carbohydrates the photosynthetic bacteria and yeasts produce. This is a strong sterilizing compound and can suppress some disease inducing microorganisms and nematode populations. It also contributes to the fermentation and breakdown of the tough cellulose and lignin. Here’s our soil digestive processes getting a help along. Yeasts on the other hand have other uses. They produce hormones and enzymes that promote plant cell and root division. They use the amino acids and sugars secreted by the photosynthetic bacteria and plant roots and in turn give off substances which are good growing compounds for the Lactic acid bacteria. So all three species have a separate role to play, and help each other. They also have a symbiotic or mutually beneficial relationship with the roots of plants. So plants grow exceptionally well in soils dominated by these Microbes.

Bacteria and microbes live, reproduce and die, at enormous rates and in doing so release a constant stream of nutrients in plant available form. They collect nitrogen and other nutrients from the soil organic matter and mineral particles. They reproduce, so more microbes are collecting and converting nutrients. They die and release what they have collected in a form the plants can use. The plants grow better, assimilate more energy and provide more food for more microbes and so it goes on.

It’s a two way process. Living plants absorb energy from the sun, incorporate it with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, water and nutrients they require from the soil. Then they release oxygen back to the atmosphere and carbon to the soil as carbohydrates, glucose and other carbon forms for the microbes to feed on. The size of this microbial population is governed by the inputs from the plants, the primary producers.

We can see the grass and trees growing on top of the ground. But scientists tell us that fifty percent of a plant’s primary production disappears underground to establish the root network and feed the microorganisms. That is what happens in a healthy natural system. It is a mutually beneficial relationship that has evolved over eons and led to the formation of our most fertile and well-structured soils. Even the timing is perfect. In most natural systems, the greatest microbial turnover and release of nutrients, coincides with the plant’s growth and its seasonal needs.

Understanding this helps us see the danger of farming systems and landuse activities that starve the soil of carbon matter. No carbon means no food for the microbes. No food for the microbes means no turnover of nutrients. No nutrients means no plant growth which means no carbon inputs and so it goes on into a downward spiral with loss of fertility, loss of structure, erosion and so on and on. So our effective microorganisms are only going to remain effective if we manage our pastures with them in mind too. That means not overstocking or baring paddocks. It means allowing pastures to develop enough leaf to do their photosynthesis number effectively and fix some carbon for all the other little greeblies further along the food chain.

 

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Bacillus Subtilis Plant Growth Promoter

Bacillus Subtilis Plant Growth Promoter

 

Bacillus subtilis plant growth promoter is a phrase that we’ll discuss in this post.

Bacillus subtilis plant growth promoter

Bacillus subtilis

It is well known that number of beneficial soil microorganisms, like Bacillus subtilis, act as plant growth promoters, also called synergistic plant promotion.

B. subtilis produces plant hormones and solubilizes insoluble forms of phosphates. This makes the phosphate, a necessary chemical in plant growth, available to the plant.

Custom B5, a biofertilizer, contains five species of beneficial soil bacteria including B. subtilis. 

Bacillus subtilis produces Auxins

One of the ways that B.subtilis promotes plant growth is by the production (biosynthesis) of plant hormones such as auxins. Auxin was derived from the greek word auxein which means to grow.

Auxins were the first plant hormones discovered. Auxins have a number of effects on plants including:

  • Stimulates cell elongation
  • Delays fruit ripening
  • Auxin is required for fruit formation
  • Stimulates the xylem and phloem
  • Auxin promotes root initiation and formation.

By producing auxins, B. subtilis helps the plant grow and develop. Since both the plant and the soil microorganism benefit, this relationship is called synergistic or sometimes the term probiotic is used. Either way, the soil microorganisms perform an invaluable service to the plant.

Bacillus subtilis solubilizes insoluble phosphate

The second major reason for the phrase Bacillus subtilis plant growth promoter is the ability to solubilize phosphate. Insoluble phosphate is generally inaccessible to the plant. The root system simply cannot absorb it. B. subtilis, however, solubilizes the phosphate making it accessible to the plant.

Soil microorganisms, such as B. subtilis, are essential to plant health and plant growth. The synergistic relationship between the soil bacteria and the plant roots is a vital one for both parties.

Commercial Products containing B. Subtilis

Custom Biologicals manufactures three agricultural products that contain B. subtilis.

Custom Biologicals is expert in the use of beneficial soil bacteria such as B. subtilis, sometimes called B. Sub or B. Sub bacteria.

Custom manufactures a wide variety of biological products including soil amendments. Contact Custom Biologicals at (561) 797-3008 or via email at Bill@Custombio.biz. Distributor inquires are welcome. Private labeling and customized formulations are available.

Bio Soil for Plants. Biofertilizers for Plants.

Bio Soil for Plants

Bio Soil refers to the idea that the soil is alive with biological activity, living soil. Bio soils are in fact biological organisms, like beneficial soil bacteria or beneficial soil Trichoderma.

Bacillus megaterium and B. subtilis are bacteria that are useful for plants. Bacteria for plants can be either beneficial for the plant or detrimental to the plant. In this post we’ll talk about beneficial bacteria for plants, specifically beneficial soil bacteria.

It is well known that beneficial plant bacteria play a critical role in supporting and increasing plant growth and plant health. Because of their ability to confer benefits to the plant, it is important that beneficial bacteria adequately colonize the plant’s environment, specifically the plant root system.

Sometimes called Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria, or PGPB, bacteria are a vital link in the food web for plants.

Bio Soil

Custom B5 Contains Bacillus megaterium

Here’s a brief introduction to two key beneficial plant bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium.

Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus subtilis, or B. sub, is a key beneficial plant bacteria. B. subtilis plays a role in replenishing soil nutrients through both the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle. To aid the carbon cycle B. subtilis degrades thatch, pectin, cellulose and other organic materials. B. subtilis forms biofilms which are dense populations of organisms. These biofilms provides the plants with preventive colonization, sometimes called competitive inhibition. While beyond the scope of this post, preventative colonization essentially prohibits other microorganisms from forming colonies around the plant roots.

Bacillus megaterium

Another key beneficial plant bacteria is Bacillus megaterium. In addition to some of the benefits conferred by B. subtilis, B. megaterium is known to be a phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). PSBs have several important benefits:

  • They make phosphorus more available to the plant
  • Reduce the need for traditional fertilizer applications
  • Reduce Environmental problems downstream
  • Promote sustainable agriculture.

Beneficial Plant Bacteria – Bio Soil

The use of beneficial plant bacteria, like those above, has a very positive effect on plant growth, root mass, and crop yields. Specifically, beneficial plant bacteria produce plants with better growth response, biomass yield, and nutrient content when compared to plants without these important beneficial soil bacteria.

Custom Biologicals manufactures a wide variety of microbial products including products that contain beneficial plant bacteria and beneficial soil Trichoderma. Contact Custom at (561) 797-3008 or via email at Bill@Custombio.biz.

Bio Soil Enhancers refer to the idea of using biological products or biofertilizers to the soil. Creating a biologicals active soil.

 

 

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What Does it Mean – Living Soils?

Living Soils

What Does it Mean?

Living soils are simply the portion of the soil that is composed of living microorganisms. To have truly health soil the soil must contain a variety of microorganisms. So, healthy soils means far more  than just the absence of disease. Healthy soil means that soil contains all of the necessary microorganisms to create a balanced micro food web for the plants. While plants vary in their need for different microorganisms, the constant factor is the need for a vibrant mix of soil microbiology to have healthy, living soils.

There are three main types of soil microorganisms that we’ll discuss in this post; bacteria, fungi, protozoa.

 

Beneficial Soil Bacteria 

Bacteria are prokaryotic, single celled microorganisms. Bacteria, Living soilsthrough their ability to produce a wide variety of enzymes, are vital for recycling nutrients in the soil. Bacteria produce so many enzymes that they are sometimes thought of as enzyme factories. There are thousands of species of bacteria and they are among the oldest organisms on earth. Ecologically, many bacteria are classified as decomposers. That is organisms that “feed” on dead organisms and recycling their nutrients. Additionally, bacteria bind several compounds to the soil, including nitrogen,  so that they will not leach out of the soil. 

Beneficial Soil Fungi 

Fungi are a form of microorganism that create several benefits to living soils. Fungi tend to hold soil together and thus improve soil structure. Beneficial soil fungi consume some of the harder to digest materials such as the cellulose found in leaves and tree trunks. Fungi can have a symbiotic, mutually beneficial, relationship with plants. This mycorrhizal relationship allows some beneficial fungi to transfer vital nutrients directly to the plant roots. It is important to note that whole many soil fungi are beneficial, there are also disease causing, pathogenic, fungi as well.

Protozoa

Protozoa include a number of microorganisms many of which consume soil bacteria. As a part of the soil micro food web, protozoa consume bacteria releasing the excess nutrients in a soluble form. It is this soluble form of the nutrients that is utilized by the plant roots. All the organisms we’ve discussed, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, also help build micro air passages that allow air, water, and nutrients to move through the soil to the roots.

So living soils means having a healthy mix of beneficial soil microorganisms. Like most things, balance is the key.

Custom Biologicals is interested in helping you maintain your living soils. Custom GP and Custom B5 contain beneficial soil microorganisms intended to help your plants. Contact Custom for more information.

 

 

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Field Trial News – Alfalfa

Alfalfa Field Trial News

Field Trial News – Alfalfa

 

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a flowering plant in the pea family and cultivated as an important forage crop. In the United Kingdom it is known as Lucerne and Lucerne grass in south Asia. In the United States its known as alfalfa.

Alfalfa with Custom GP & Custom B5

Alfalfa has shown significant benefits from treatment with Custom GP Trichoderma Blend & Custom B5 Bacillus Blend Soil Amendments. Custom GP and Custom B5 contain specifically selected beneficial microorganisms (bacteria and fungi). These beneficial soil microorganisms have been selected because of their safety and their ability to create a more fertile soil by restoring natural microbial populations. The use of B5 and GP will increase  nutrient availability, enhance root development, and promote vigorous plant growth.

Major Benefits to Alfalfa

  • Increased Protein Content
  • Increased Sugar Content
  • Increased Root Mass
  • Stronger Plant
  • Greater Yield

Alfalfa Field Trial

Crop: Alfalfa

Treatment: Custom GP Trichoderma
Custom B5 Bacillus

Location: Wyoming

Year: 2007

Farm Size: 40,000 Acres
(16,000 Hectares)

Trial Size: 10 Acres (4 Hectares)

Major Benefits:

Control
Treated
Increase
Protein Content
15%
19%
21%
Sugar Content
0.5%
0.75%
50%
Cuttings
2
3
1

Field Trial Results

Conclusion: The use of Custom GP and Custom B5 was of great benefit to the alfalfa in this alfalfa field trial. There was an increase in both protein and sugar content of the alfalfa. Additionally, there was one more cutting of the alfalfa.

Custom B5 and Custom GP are manufactured and distributed by Custom Biologicals. Custom can be reached at (561) 797-3008 or via email at Bill@Custombio.biz.

Custom Biologicals manufactures a wide variety of microbial products for use in environmental and agricultural applications. Customized formulations and dealer/distributor inquires are welcome.

Contact Custom Biologicals for more information about this alfalfa field trial news or about more information on how Custom B5 and Custom GP can help your crops.

CustomBio can be reached at (561) 797-3008 or via email at Bill@CustomBio.biz

 

 

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